Tuesday, November 11, 2014

Could Red Wolves Still Roam Texas?

The red wolf (Canis rufus) once roamed a large part of the southeastern part of North America. The range of the red wolf once stretched from the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts northward into Indiana and the Ohio River Valley. This long-legged canid also inhabited areas stretching from central Pennsylvania to Missouri and central Texas. The red wolf was an apex predator that could successfully make a living in forests, swamps or prairies. Now, however, it is all but gone. Most scientists feel the species went extinct in the wild in the early 1980’s. The last red wolves known to have lived in Texas were documented by John Paradiso. He noted that seven specimens taken from Chambers County near Anahuac between 1963 and 1964 and one specimen taken from Kennedy County near Armstrong in 1961 were full-blooded red wolves. Subsequent specimens taken from the eastern portion of the Lone Star State have all been found to be large coyotes.

Debate has raged among biologists as to whether the red wolf went extinct in the traditional sense. What I mean by that is that many believe, as their numbers dwindled, red wolves interbred with coyotes (Canis latrans). This continued long enough that full-blooded wolves disappeared, leaving only a sort of coyote/wolf mutt here in Texas. It has been documented that many, if not most, coyotes in Texas carry at least some red wolf genetics. This confirms that this interbreeding took place and took place often. Some scientists feel that the red wolf was nothing but a hybrid in the first place, albeit a fertile one that was able to reproduce; the offspring of coyotes and gray wolves. The taxonomy of the red wolf is a topic for another post and I do not want to get bogged down in that right now. The important thing to note here is that due to a combination of hunting, aggressive predator control practices, habitat destruction and increasingly extensive hybridization with coyotes, the red wolf has disappeared forever from Texas.

Or has it?

Reports continue to filter in from rural Texas of wolves stalking the woods, creeks, swamps and prairies. These witnesses will stress to you that they are wolves and not coyotes. A lot of these folks will tell you that they have popped many a coyote while protecting their stock and know the difference between what they have taken in the past and a wolf. Wildlife biologists disagree and say these predators have been extirpated. After all, they say, if they were still here there would be photos of them. Case closed.

Or is it?

There are some pretty interesting photos out there that seem to indicate that the red wolf might not be completely gone after all. I will explore three different sets of photos in this post. One set, in my opinion, is likely a coy dog, the identity of the canid in one photo is debatable and, finally, one set of photos seems to clearly show a red wolf-like animal.

I recently obtained a couple of photos, that came from a gentleman living near Meridian, of a dead canid that he feels is a red wolf. As you can see in the photo below, the animal has some wolf-like characteristics. In my opinion, however, this is likely some sort of shepherd mix or possibly a coy dog (coyote/domestic hybrid). The animal does have pointed ears but they appear narrower than what I would expect to see in a red wolf. The muzzle is larger than that of a coyote but more rounded in appearance than I would expect in a red wolf. Certainly, the Meridian specimen appears thick in the neck and through the chest like a wolf but the coloring is more like that of a German shepherd. I admit that the eyes of the specimen have the narrow appearance that would be expected in a wolf but it must be kept in mind that could be because we are looking at a dead animal. The animal appears quite large, and I have been assured that the Meridian specimen stretched from the hunter’s shoulders to the ground when held up by the back legs but have no hard evidence to back that up. There is nothing in the photos I received that shows scale. That being the case, the best I can say is that the photos are inconclusive and should not be used as evidence that red wolves still roam the Lone Star State.

A few years ago, a NAWAC game camera captured a photo of a canid that was the subject of much discussion among group members. The animal in question appeared to be larger than a typical coyote and had many of the hallmarks of a red wolf or, at the very least, a red wolf hybrid. The coloring on the NAWAC specimen is certainly dead on as compared to most typically colored red wolves. Too, the ears are large and the snout is of the correct shape. The animal is thick in the chest and, as the comparison photo shows, is almost interchangeable in size and coloration with that of a red wolf. There are arguments against this being a red wolf, too. The coloration is a good match but the problem is that many coyotes exhibit almost identical coats. The ears are large but are more rounded than I would expect to see on a true wolf. I think the comparison photo illustrates this point quite well. In addition, the eyes of the NAWAC specimen look more rounded and coyote-like than the more narrow eyes usually associated with a full-blooded wolf. One of our members, who has an extensive background in all things wildlife-related, showed the photo to three wildlife biologists. Two of these scientists felt that, at the very least, this animal had red wolf genetics in him and was likely a hybrid. The third, towing the company line, said it was a coyote. When asked how he could be so sure, the biologist responded, “because there are no red wolves in Texas,” (I’ll leave that statement alone for the time being). Scale is also a problem here. It is impossible to say just how large the canid in the NAWAC photo actually is as there is nothing in the picture to provide obvious scale. It appears tall and long-legged but the photo is far from definitive. Measurements could have been taken of the tree behind the specimen but, as it was another cryptid we were attempting to photograph at the time, this was not done. My personal opinion on this animal is that it clearly has some red wolf in it. Whether it is a true hybrid (the first generation offspring of a coyote-red wolf coupling) or a descendent of a hybrid (more likely) I cannot say.

The third set of photos I want to take a look at were graciously provided by Chester Moore, Jr. and are featured on his Kingdom Zoo website (www.thekingdomzoo.com). The photos were captured via game camera by Mr. Moore’s research partner, Terri Werner, in 2012. The two pictures featured here are stills from two separate videos taken at the same location. I think most would agree that the animal seen in these photos is anything but a common coyote. The coloration, thick body, long legs and large ears immediately caused me to think “wolf.”

Mr. Moore also has a very interesting video of a red wolf-like canid on his website that is worth the time to view. The video subject is not built like a coyote; it is taller and longer-legged. While the video is black and white, the stark white of the subject’s chin, neck and chest is obvious. This pattern is exactly what one would expect to see when viewing a red wolf. Obviously, I cannot definitively say that the canids captured on video by Moore and Werner are full-blooded red wolves. What I can say is that whatever their genetic make-up might turn out to be, these canids are likely the closest thing to true red wolves I have seen in the wild and, if nothing else, their existence should prove the need for all of us to keep an open mind when it comes to entertaining the idea that these magnificent animals might once again roam parts of the Lone Star State…

… if they ever left at all.

*A special thanks to Chester Moore, Jr. for allowing me to use the photos above in this post. Please check out Mr. Moore’s Kingdom Zoo website and consider supporting his Children’s Kingdom Ministry.


  1. Great artical thinks for the info I sure hope the red wolf makes a come back here in texas. look at that whale that washed up in 2007 they thought had been extinct for many many years. I myself believe a few had to have made it.

  2. Interesting article. I'm reading it because, during a hike through the woods at Lake Georgetown today, I saw what I can only describe as a wolf - too large and too dark in coloring to have been a coyote. Definitely not a domesticated animal. I had a good look at the animal as it stopped to look me full in the face. There was possibly a second one in the brush behind it..

  3. My husband and I volunteer with a National Wildlife Refuge System. We just left the coast and lakes in North Carolina, an area where the Red Wolves Murray introduced into. In the visitor center there we had a display of actual Red Wolves that had been taxidermy. We are very aware what a red wolf looks like. Currently we are at Brazoria National Wildlife Refuge in South Texas. my husband swears that a read will cross in front of him this morning. Just wondering if there have been other sighting in this area?

  4. I love in Chambers County, TX. Beach City, to be exact. I have been here since 2003. I am 99.9% positive that we have either Red Wolves or Hybrid Red Wolves roaming around here. They are huge! Standing up on their hind legs they're at least 5ft tall. They are beautiful. They don't have the tiny face and snout like a coyote and by judging I would estimate they must weigh anywhere from 60-90 lbs. They have markIngs almost like a gray wolf. That strange looking stripe that runs from shoulder blade to shoulder blade. I have heard on a number if occasions a lone wolf or a couple of them just howl. Not yip and yap, but HOWL! It is so eerie but beautiful sounding at the same time. They are very elusive and we usually see them more during the winter months although they are harder to spot in the winter because their resist coat turns more grauy. I would just love it if we could have a research team come out and see what exactly we have here.

  5. Yes. I TOO AM POSITIVE I HAD An adult Red Wolf on the road 70 feet in front of my truck, on county road 227 near the entrance road to the Discovery Center in the Brazoria National Wildlife Refuge. My previous volunteer time was in North Carolina at the Poccosln Lakes Refuge. There is a Red Wolf Exhibit there and a video on the recovery program that we played often for visitors. I also found fresh prints near the Poccosln lakes State Park , Cypress Point public fishing pier on Lake Phelps.

  6. Me and my girlfriend at the time back in 2010 were driving from Marshall to Wascon on a small road. We saw several wolf-like animals feeding on something along the road. We didn't stop, but we were amazed and pretty sure that they were not coyotes because they were huge

  7. Up until about 6 years ago I used to hear the red wolves howl in the Trinity River bottom on our family land near Centerville. I have not heard any in a while, just the yapping of coyotes. Very sad I wish we could bring them back but you cannot stop the hunters from shooting everything that they see. There used to be buffalo and bears 1830's we certainly don't see them anymore either, and no one has seen a yellow wolf since about 1850

  8. My son , daughter and I have seen a critter twice this summer, within 50 yards of the house in broad daylight, probably coming to steal chickens. It is much larger than a regular coyote and was a red-gold color, not the normal tan-gray of a coyote. I wish we had taken a picture. Maybe there are still red wolves in Burleson County, TX.

    1. i have seen them in
      old Dime Box

    2. Yes, I have been on the alert as we are losing chickens again. I saw two wolves heading for our chicken coop through the pasture on Feb. 21, 2018. Definitely not coyotes! We also have heard a lone wolf howl at night. They do not sound like coyotes either.

  9. I believe I was priveleged to have a red wolf (or at least a hybrid) visit me in League City, Texas in early 2013. Coyotes would come nearly every night to the field behind my home, and yip and yap for hours. I enjoyed hearing them. On the morning of the day I moved from there, I was standing at a window, looking out at the field And thinking of all the wildlife I would miss seeing and hearing. A movement caught my eye, and I looked in that direction. How thrilled I was to see, seemingly staring back at me, what I believed to be a red wolf! "She" was beautiful!! Much larger than a coyote, much stockier, her coat was much fuller and of the most beautiful reddish color! Her tail was very thick. She was magnificent! She stared a while, as if to say goodbye, then turned and trotted down the edge of the copse of woods she had stood in front of, then disappeared into the woods. I'll never forget her. I didn't get a photo. I couldn't take my eyes off her long enough to go grab my phone or camera!

  10. I believe I've had wolf sightings on 3 occasions over several years in North TX and also along the Red River on the TX side. The first time I ever saw a wolf I was on a fishing excursion with my uncle and we were at Buck Creek on the east side of Tioga TX. We were driving along a dirt road when I noticed the wolf hiding near the edge of the road in the brush waiting for us to pass. I told my uncle to stop and back up and he did even though he didn't believe me when we got to where he was he jumped out on to the road and ran about 100 yards down the road before crossing to the other side. My uncle agreed that it wasn't a coyote.
    The second time I saw a wolf in TX I was walking in the woods near lake Ray Roberts when I saw what I thought was a coyote in the distance about 500 yards away in a field walking directly toward the stand of trees and a brush pile that my dog and I were looking for small game. I decided to hide behind the brush pile and hold my dog so he didn't spook what I thought was the coyote. He ended up walking up to about 15 yards away before he stopped to smell the air as he probably caught the sent of myself and the dog. He was taller and sturdier than my Australian Shepard mix dog and had a distinct facial structure not very similar to the pointy narrow head and muzzle of a coyote.
    The third time I saw a wolf it was actually a pack of 5 or six that I first heard howling near where I was fishing with my 3 wolffogs that I got after becoming interested in wild canids. It was about 6 pm in summer 2008. After I heard them they came out into the opposite bank on the TX side and we're okay fighting for about 5 minutes before they took off again. The seemed to be fairly young judging by their behavior and could've been siblings with their parents. I nfairly certain they were wolves because their howles were deeper and drawn out compared to coyotes an their markings were more distinct than that of a TX coyote. They were all grayish brown with light markings that you typically wouldn't be able to see on a coyote from that distance. I was about an eight mile away. Although they in my mind were wolves they could've been pets/ hybrids like my animals were. Wolfdogs are fairly common in TX so there's a good chance they may have been pets.

  11. I saw a red wolf. In the field here in Kyle tx. It was wonderful to see. No hybrid. It was across the fence about 20 ft. I stayed still and it stayed still we looked at each other. Then I called my dog and slowly walked away. When I turned it was gone. There's a lot of construction going on and wooded areas are coming down quick. We actually had one come out during day and right in front of us grab one of our baby goats. We yelled it let go but broke the neck and goat died. We have caught in trap a coyote this is much bigger and reddish in color. They have no fear come out all times of the day and night. We built higher fences. So far it's kept them out.

  12. I have been staying on San Luis Island since the beginning of the year. About 2 weeks ago I was on the front deck of my house a little after midnight when movement caught my eye. At first I thought it was a deer, and then decided it was the biggest (and reddest) coyote Ive ever seen in my life. I recall thinking to myself it looked more like a wolf, but of course there are no wolves in Texas. This was definitely not a domesticated animal. This was right at the northernmost point of San Luis, and I am certainly hoping to be lucky enough to spot it again.